Rendering React Components on the Server

I love working with React. Like, a little too much (no thanks to my (amazing) internship at Khan Academy, where we use React in buckets).

For a recent side project, I wanted to render my React components on the server, rather than the client (this is often abbreviated as "server-side rendering", or SSR, for short).

Typical motivations for rendering on the server include:

  1. Faster page loads: by rendering on the server, you get to send down a complete webpage, cut out an HTTP request, etc.
  2. More reliable SEO: any crawler that navigates to your site will see a complete page filled with content, rather than an empty page that requires JavaScript execution.

(This isn't to say that SSR is strictly better than client-side rendering; it's just different.)

SSR is totally doable with React; but a lot of the SSR-related resources out there seem to assume prior knowledge. I thought I'd share what I've learned.

The Basics

Static markup

Let's start with the static case, in which the rendered components we send to the client won't need to re-render in any way.

React provides a method, renderComponentToStaticMarkup, that takes a React component and returns its HTML markup as a string. This is super useful for server-side rendering, as you can simply pass the method output into a templating engine and send the client the resulting HTML page. For example, if you're using Handlebars, you can render your component to static markup and send it down in the markup variable as such:

<div>{{ "{{{ markup " }}}}}</div>

Reactive components

But it's rare that you really want your components to be static. Why's that? Static components can't respond to non-trivial user interaction, update state, re-render, etc. They're totally passive and, err, static.

For React components to behave as you'd expect (with updates and re-renders), they need an actual react.js instance to be aware of their existence so as to handle event binding, manage prop and state changes, and reflect these changes in the DOM. Without it, all you have is static, non-responsive markup.

Thankfully, React provides a second method, renderComponentToString, that again returns a string of HTML markup, but this time enables our generated components to react to interactions on the client-side as necessary.

How so? The key is to (ostensibly) re-render the component on the client as soon as the page has loaded. Bear with me.

An Example

Let's say that we have a React component, Item, with one prop (called initialCount) and one piece of state (called count). The component initializes count with initialCount and increments it on-click. Here's a bare-bones version:

var Item = React.createClass({
  getInitialState: function () {
    return {
      count: this.props.initialCount,

  _increment: function () {
    this.setState({ count: this.state.count + 1 });

  render: function () {
    return <div onClick={this._increment}>{this.state.count}</div>;

We want to render this component on the server, which might look like (for example's sake, I'll assume Express and Handlebars):

var React = require('react');
var markup = React.renderComponentToString(
    Item({ initialCount: 7 })
res.render('template', {
    markup: markup

Then, in our template, we'd have:

<div id="container">{{ "{{{ markup " }}}}}</div>

If we stopped here, then on page load, we'd see the number '7'—but our component wouldn't update on-click. Why? As I mentioned, we haven't made our client-side React instance aware of the component, so it can't handle re-renders. But the problem comes even before an attempt to setState: since React handles the binding of events to components, our onClick handler won't be passed down in the static markup (take a look), and thus won't be triggered at all.

To get this component under control, we'll need a call in the browser that looks something like this (assuming React and Item are available as globals):

var container = document.getElementById("container");
var component = Item({ initialCount: 7 });
React.renderComponent(component, container);

With that, we can click on our rendered component and the count will increment: events are bound, as they would be if we'd rendered client-side, and the DOM updates to reflect our changes.

The magic of it all: as long as we render Item with the same props and into the same node on both the client and server, React won't actually re-render the component (which would be less performant)—it's smart enough to realize that the rendered Item already exists in the DOM and simply note that it may need to be re-rendered in the future.

This is the best of both worlds: we get all the benefits of server-side rendering while maintaining truly reactive React components.

Syncing Props

A key phrase there: we need to render Item with the same props on the client and server (as evidenced by the last code snippet, above). That's a little frustrating, but not terribly difficult to do. A few viable approaches include:

  1. Passing the initial props down through templating.

    There's a good example of this behavior in Michael Hart's react-server-example repo, but here's the basic idea:

    var props = { initialCount: 7 };
    var markup = React.renderComponentToString(Item(props));
        '<div id="container">' + markup + '</div>' +
            var container = document.getElementById("container");
            var component = Item(' + JSON.stringify(props) + ');
            React.renderComponent(component, container);

    Note: For each of these examples, to avoid XSS attacks (as per Sophie Alpert's blog post), you should use a safeStringify function, rather than JSON.stringify. There's a JavaScript implementation here.

  2. Passing the initial props down in a <script> tag with type="application/json".

    Again, the standard approach would be to handle this step with your templating engine:

    <div id="container">{{ "{{{ markup " }}}}}</div>
    <script id="props" type="application/json">
      {{ "{{{ jsonifiedProps " }}}}}
      var container = document.getElementById("container");
      var props = JSON.parse(document.getElementById("props").innerHTML);
      React.renderComponent(Item(props), container);

    Given that the second <script> tag is now totally independent of anything we passed in to our templating engine, we could follow Andrey Popp's example by removing the second <script> tag and appending our item.jsx file with:

    if (typeof window !== "undefined") {
      var container = document.getElementById("container");
      var props = JSON.parse(document.getElementById("props").innerHTML);
      React.renderComponent(Item(props), container);
  3. Passing the initial props down in a <script> tag on the component itself.

    This is a twist on approach #2 that, while somewhat unorthdox, has its merits. Back to the Item example, our render function could be written as follows:

    render: function() {
        var json = safeStringify(this.props);
        var propStore = <script type="application/json"
            dangerouslySetInnerHTML={{ "{{__html: json" }}}}>
        return <div onClick={this._increment}>

    The dangerouslySetInnerHTML attribute is used to avoid escaping issues. It's a little messy, but not too bad.

    The upside of this approach: it avoids mixing props into the templating step. Further, if you move the client-side React.renderComponent call into your JSX file by following the if (typeof window !== 'undefined') pattern, you can package all of your server-side rendering logic within React, which is a big plus.

    As an aside: I use an SSRWrapper React component that takes care of both the <script type="application/json"> injection and client-side React.renderComponent call, allowing me to write carefree components.

  4. Passing the initial props down as a window-level variable. Relatively straightforward, given the explanations above.


One other thing: of course, your client page will need to have access to the actual JSX files that make up your React components (along with React itself). This is typically done by creating a Browserify (or Webpack) bundle and adding a <script> tag to your React component that loads said bundle.

So, in addition to any changes we made in the previous section, we might modify our render to look like:

render: function() {
    return <div onClick={this._increment}>
        <script src="/bundles/item.js"></script>

(We could also put this <script> tag elsewhere on the page through templating—whatever's easiest. Once again, I use my SSRWrapper component to abstract this step away.)

On the server, we have to make item.js available as a bundle. I use the excellent browserify-middleware, for which the Express-side logic might look like:

var browserify = require("browserify-middleware");
var reactify = require("reactify");
browserify.settings("transform", ["reactify"]);
app.get("/bundles/item.js", browserify("./jsx/item.jsx"));

It's often useful to create a shared bundle for React, as well as an individual bundle for each of your React components, in which case you might modify the snippet above to include:

var shared = ['react'];
router.get('/bundles/shared.js', browserify(shared));
app.get('/bundles/item.js', browserify('./jsx/item.jsx', {
    external: shared

How does it all work?

Now that we have a good sense for how to render server-side, it's worth stepping through some React source to understand why it works this way.

If you inspect a React component that's been rendered on the server (i.e., generated with renderComponentToString), you'll notice that it has an unfamiliar attribute, data-react-checksum, which you won't have seen on client-side components. For example, after it's been passed down from the server, our Item component might look like:

<div id="container">
  <div data-reactid=".feh782p6o0" data-react-checksum="75238508">7</div>

Walking through the React source for renderComponentToString, we see the following:

function renderComponentToString(component) {
    var componentInstance = instantiateReactComponent(component);
    var markup = componentInstance.mountComponent(id, transaction, 0);
    return ReactMarkupChecksum.addChecksumToMarkup(markup);

Stepping one level deeper into the addChecksumToMarkup function reveals that data-react-checksum is an Adler-32 checksum generated from the HTML markup and appended to any component rendered server-side.

Later, we call renderComponent on the client-side. With new components (i.e., those that haven't been seen before by our React instance, like the ones we generated on the server), a call to renderComponent eventually tests for canReuseMarkup:

// `markup` is the HTML markup that would be generated by our component
// `element` is the DOM node into which it would be rendered
canReuseMarkup: function(markup, element) {
    var existingChecksum = element.getAttribute(
    existingChecksum = existingChecksum && parseInt(existingChecksum, 10);
    var markupChecksum = adler32(markup);
    return markupChecksum === existingChecksum;

If this test passes, then instead of rendering anything, React simply takes note of the component.

So, what's happening here is actually quite simple:

  • On the server, React appends a checksum for the rendered components to its outermost DOM node.
  • When a new component is passed to React on the client, it first checks for the existing HTML markup at the target DOM node and grabs the Adler-32 checksum appended by the server.
  • This value is compared to the checksum that would be generated by the provided React component and its props.
  • If the values are equivalent, no rendering is necessary, and thus no rendering is performed.

For example, if we render Item({ initialCount: 5 }) on the server, it'll turn it into HTML markup, calculate a checksum, and append it to the outermost DOM node. Then, when we call React.renderComponent(Item({ initialCount: 5 }), container) on the client, it checks if the markup generated by Item({ initialCount: 5 }) matches the checksum (which it does) and simply returns (rather than re-rendering).


A few things to keep in mind:

  • When rendering on the server, getDefaultProps, getInitialState, and componentWillMount are the only React lifecycle methods that get run (see, e.g., the note on componentDidMount in the docs). Be aware!

  • If you're using Handlebars, you'll need triple { around your markup, otherwise it won't be interpreted as raw HTML (see "HTML Escaping" in the docs).

  • Again, if you're using Handlebars, be sure to do:

    <div>{{ "{{{ markup " }}}}}</div>

    As opposed to, e.g.:

      {{ "{{{ markup " }}}}}

    React is somewhat space-sensitive: if you opt for the latter and try to render your component into the outermost <div>, React will infer that the firstChild of the <div> is actually a newline character, rather than your rendered component. As a result, it'll completely re-render it. This is a known issue, but the fix isn't live yet.

  • To avoid re-rendering, the markup generated by the client and server must be completely identical. That means, for example, that you can't pass down the initial props in a <script> tag only on the server; otherwise, the checksums won't match up. As a rule of thumb, avoid any checks for (typeof window !== 'undefined') or whatnot when writing rendering-related code.

Resources & Acknowledgements

Here are some resources I found helpful (and referenced above):

Finally, thanks to Sophie Alpert for her feedback on a draft of this post.